P. 10

Unit 1: Concept of Research

          Self Assessment                                                                          Notes

          Multiple Choice Questions:
          1.   Basic research is also called Fundamental or
               (a)  Scientific research              (b)  Pure research
               (c)  Primary research                 (d)  None of these.

          2.   Which structures and identifies new problems?
               (a)  Constructive research            (b)  Basic research
               (c)  Exploratory research             (d)  None of these.
          3.   Which develops solutions to a problem?
               (a)  Secondary research               (b)  Constructive research

               (c)  Scientific research              (d)  Exploratory research.
          4.   Which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence?
               (a)  Exploratory research             (b)  Constructive research
               (c)  Pure research                    (d)  Empirical research.

          1.2    The Aims of Research

          •    Observe and Describe
          •    Predict

          •    Determination of the Causes
          •    Explain
          The ultimate aims of research are to generate measurable and testable data, gradually adding
          to the accumulation of human knowledge. Ancient philosophers believed that all answers
          could be achieved through deduction and reasoning, rather than measurement. Science now
          uses established research methods and standard protocols to test theories thoroughly.
          It is important to remember that science and philosophy are intertwined and essential elements
          of human advancement, both contributing to the way we view the world. Scientific research,
          however, allows us to test hypotheses and lay solid foundations for future research and study.

          No theory or hypothesis can ever be completely proved or disproved, but research enables us
          to make valid assumptions about the universe. This gradual accumulation of knowledge dictates
          the overall direction of science and philosophy.

          Observation and Description
          The first stage of any research is to observe the world around us and to ask questions about
          why things are happening. Every phenomenon in the universe has a reason behind it, and the
          aims of research are to understand and evaluate what is happening.

          However simple the phenomenon or however easy it appears to be to generate logical and
          intuitive answers, scientific research demands rigorous testing for a truth to be accepted.
          Describing the overall behavior of the subject is the first stage of any research, whether it is
          a case study or a full-blown ‘true experimental design’.

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