P. 7

Methodology of Research and Statistical Techniques

                 Notes          1.1    The Scientific Definition

                                The strict definition of research is performing a methodical study in order to prove a hypothesis
                                or answer a specific question. Finding a definitive answer is the central goal of any experimental
                                Research must be systematic and follow a series of steps and a rigid standard protocol. These
                                rules are broadly similar but may vary slightly between the different fields of science.
                                Research must be organized and undergo planning, including performing literature reviews
                                of past research and evaluating what questions need to be answered.

                                Any type of ‘real’ research, whether scientific, economic or historical, requires some kind of
                                interpretation and an opinion from the researcher. This opinion is the underlying principle, or
                                question, that establishes the nature and type of experiment.
                                The scientific definition of research generally states that a variable must be manipulated,
                                although case studies and purely observational science do not always comply with this norm.
                                Research is an often-misused term, its usage in everyday language very different from the
                                strict scientific meaning. In the field of science, it is important to move away from the looser
                                meaning and use it only in its proper context. Scientific research adheres to a set of strict
                                protocols and long established structures.

                                Often, we will talk about conducting internet research or say that we are researching in the
                                library. In everyday language, it is perfectly correct grammatically, but in science, it gives a
                                misleading impression. The correct and most common term used in science is that we are
                                conducting a literature review.

                                What is Research? — The Guidelines
                                For a successful career in science, you must understand the methodology behind any research
                                and be aware of the correct protocols. Science has developed these guidelines over many years
                                as the benchmark for measuring the validity of the results obtained.
                                Failure to follow the guidelines will prevent your findings from being accepted and taken
                                seriously. These protocols can vary slightly between scientific disciplines, but all follow the
                                same basic structure.
                                Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of
                                matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development
                                of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of
                                scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but
                                need not do so.
                                Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity.
                                This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature
                                and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific
                                research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups,
                                including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications
                                according to their academic and application disciplines.
                                Historical research is embodied in the historical method.

                                The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular

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